Environmental Kuznets Curves: The Case of Turkey

İbrahim Özmen, Mustafa Gerçeker, Mehmet Mucuk


Economic development is the main objective for developing countries. Kuznets stated that in the early stages of development, rising income inequality will decline after a certain level of income. Grossman and Krueger (1991) interpreted Kuznets' approach to show the relationship between income and the environment. According to this, while the per capita income is low, environmental pollution increases; environmental pollution is decreasing at high income levels. In this study, the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve was tested by using FMOLS and DOLS techniques on data from 1960-2013 for Turkey. The empirical findings confirm that there is a long run relationship between the variables. In addition, while electricity consumption increases environmental pollution; income and trade openness reduce pollution.


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