INEQUALITIES OF ACCESSING HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA: A STUDY AMONG THE BACKWARD CLASS STUDENTS

SREEKALA EDANNUR, Abdul Rasak.C

Abstract


The determinants of educational and occupational access of younger people in India are still attributed to their socio economic background. This study is conducted to explore the problems in access to higher education among backward class students of India. The two dimensions of social capital namely:  family social capital and social networks are considered as social capital in this study. Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBC) are the three social groups dealt as backward classes.   A Social Capital Scale and a Socioeconomic and Educational Status Schedule were used to collect data for the study. This paper investigates if there is any difference in the social capital of the students who accessed prestigious professional programmes such as Medical, Engineering and Paramedical courses and the students who accessed less prestigious programmes such as Arts and Science courses. This paper also investigates if there is any association between social origin and choice of different higher educational programmes by backward class students. Data were collected from 523 backward class students. The results shows that social background of the backward class students has significant role in getting admission to higher educational courses they have accessed. The study also reveals that social capital plays significant role in certain situations, to get access to higher education. Education of mother and parental income are significant predictors of accessing professional education by backward class students.

 


References


REFERENCES

Beaulieu, L. J. (1992). Effects of human capital and social capital on dropping out of high school in the South. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 8(1), 75-87.

Cattell, V. (2001). Poor people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks and social capital. Social science & medicine, 52(10), 1501-1516.

Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American journal of sociology, S95-S120.

Deshpande, A., & Ramachandran, R. (2013). How backward are the other backward classes? Changing contours of caste disadvantage in India. Center for Development Economics Working Papers, (233).

Dika, S. L., & Singh, K. (2002). Applications of social capital in educational literature: A critical synthesis. Review of educational research, 72(1), 31-60.

Forsyth, A., & Furlong, A. (2003). Access to higher education and disadvantaged young people. British Educational Research Journal, 29(2), 205-225.

Furstenberg Jr, F. F., & Hughes, M. E. (1995). Social capital and successful development among at-risk youth. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 580-592.

Halsey, A. H., Heath, A. F., & Ridge, J. M. (1980). Origins and destinations: Family, class, and education in modern Britain. Clarendon Pr.

Hutchings, M., & Archer, L. (2001). ‘Higher than Einstein’: constructions of going to university among working-class non-participants. Research papers in Education, 16(1), 69-91.

Kalmijn, M., & Kraaykamp, G. (1996). Race, cultural capital, and schooling: An analysis of trends in the United States. Sociology of education, 22-34.

Lopez, E. S. (1996). Social capital and the educational performance of Latino and non-Latino youth (Vol. 11). Julian Samora Research Institute, Michigan State University.

Nambissan, G. B. (1996). Equity in education? Schooling of Dalit children in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 1011-1024.

Department of Education and Science, & Plowden, L. (1967). Children and Their Primary Schools: Vol I: the Report: a Report of the Central Advisory Council for Education. HM Stationery Office.

Pugsley, L. (1998). Throwing your brains at it: higher education, markets and choice. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 8(1), 71-92.

Schneider, M., Teske, P., & Marschall, M. (2002, March 1). Choosing schools: Consumer choice and the quality of American schools. Princeton University Press.

Smrekar, C. (1996). The impact of school choice and community: In the interest of families and schools. SUNY Press.

Stanton-Salazar, R. D., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1995). Social capital and the reproduction of inequality: Information networks among Mexican-origin high school students. Sociology of education, 116-135.

Stanton-Salazar, R. (1997). A social capital framework for understanding the socialization of racial minority children and youths. Harvard educational review, 67(1), 1-41.

Sun, Y. (1998). The academic success of East-Asian–American students— An investment model. Social Science Research, 27(4), 432-456.

Wright, J. P., Cullen, F. T., & Miller, J. T. (2001). Family social capital and delinquent involvement. Journal of criminal Justice, 29(1), 1-9.

Voicu, B., & Vasile, M. (2010). Rural-Urban Inequalities and Expansion of Tertiary Education in Romania. Journal of Social Research & Policy, 1(1), 5.

Raftery, A. E. & Hout, M. (1993). Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform and Opportunity in Irish Education, 1921-1975, Sociology of Education, 66(1), 41-62.

Clancy, P. & Goastellec, G. (2007). Exploring Access and Equity in Higher Education: Policy and Performance in a Comparative Perspective, Higher Education, 61(2), 136–154.

Shavit, Y. (2007). Educational Inequality, in George Ritzer, (ed). Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell Publishing, Blackwell Reference Online.

Bourdieu, P. (1973). “Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction”. In: Brown, R. (eds.): Knowledge, Education, and Cultural Change: Papers in the Sociology of Education, London: Tavistock.

Mare, R.D. (1981). “Change and Stability in Educational Stratification”. American Sociological Review.46 (1). 72-87.

Blossfeld, H P., and Shavit, Y. (1993). “Persisting Barriers. Changes in Educational Opportunities in Thirteen Countries”, in Shavit, Y. & Blossfeld H.P. (eds.) Persistent Inequality. A Comparative Study of Educational Attainment in Thirteen Countries, Boulder, CO, West view Press.

Bidwell, C.E., and Friedkin, N.E. (1988). “Sociology of Education”. In The Handbook of Sociology, Neil J. Smelser (Eds.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Jencks, Christopher, Marshall Smith, Henry Acland, et al. (1972). Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America. New York: Basic Books.

Hout, Michael .(2004). Maximally Maintained Inequality Revisited: Irish Educational Mobility in Comparative Perspective. University of California, Berkeley, Working paper.

Raftery, Adrian E., and Hout Michael.(1985). “Does Irish Education Approach the Meritocratic Ideal?” Economic and Social Review 16:115-140.

Lynch, Kathleen.(1985). “An Analysis of Some Presuppositions Underlying the Concepts of Meritocracy and Ability.” Economic and Social Review 18:83-102.

Whelan, Christopher T., and Brendan Whelan. (1985). “Equality of Opportunity in Irish Schools: A Reassessment.” Economic and Social Review 16:103-114.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

HOW DO YOU REGISTER and SUBMIT AN ARTICLE?

Registering and Logging in

Submitting an Article