THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NUMBER OF PATENT, R&D EXPENDITURES, EXPORT, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY: BAYER-HANCK COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS

Ali Eren Alper

Abstract


This study analyzes the relationships between the number of patent, R&D expenditures, export of high-tech products, and economic growth using the data of Turkey for the period 1980-2015. In the study, first, in order to determine the stationarity order, the Fourier KPSS unit root test which allows for structural breaks is conducted. Secondly, the Bayer-Hanck cointegration test is carried out to test whether there is a long-run relationship among series. Finally, the Hatemi-J asymmetric causality test is used. The Bayer-Hanck cointegration test finds out a long-run relationship among variables. Results from the Hatemi-J asymmetric causality test reveal that there are casualties running from the negative and positive components of the number of patent, R&D expenditures, export of high-tech products to the negative and positive components of economic growth, whereas, there is a causality found running from economic growth to export of high-tech products and R&D expenditures in only positive components. There is no causality found from economic growth to the number of patent in neither negative nor positive components. 


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